China’s village housing construction has changed from focusing on the expansion of quantity to the improvement of quality and environment, which has played a great role in promoting the development of village economy and even national economy. However, the lagging industrialization of village housing has seriously hindered the healthy development of village housing construction.
This paper analyzes the problems of the industrialization of village housing in China, and proposes that measures should be taken to accelerate the pace of modernization of village housing industry by focusing closely on the objectives of the industrialization of village housing, such as strengthening government management, improving the level of planning and design of village housing, changing the mode of village housing construction, implementing comprehensive real estate development, building a perfect modernization system of village housing industry, developing and promoting green wall materials according to local conditions, and optimizing building energy conservation. Green wall materials, optimization of building energy saving, development of green energy, etc.
Village housing construction is a problem that has been neglected but needs to be solved urgently, and it is an important factor related to 900 million farmers living and working in peace and social stability in China. In the process of promoting the construction of a moderately prosperous society, the level of housing construction in villages and towns plays a vital role.
On the one hand, the volume of residential construction in villages and towns is large and extensive, effectively related to the vast number of farmers living environment; on the other hand, it is an important part of the construction of small towns and villages, to accelerate the population to small towns and villages, promote the healthy development of urbanization, accelerate urban-rural integration and rural modernization will play a huge role in promoting.
To grasp the construction of village housing, guide farmers to build housing compatible with the overall well-off life, and improve the living environment of the vast number of rural areas is an important and urgent task to coordinate urban and rural development and build a new socialist countryside in the future.
Since 1979, China’s rural residential construction is huge, an average of 600-700 million square meters of new housing each year, the rural per capita living area from 8.10 square meters in 1978 to 27.24 square meters in 2003, the quality of village housing construction and the living environment has been greatly improved.
The driving effect of village housing construction is strong. According to experts’ estimation, the added value of related industries driven by investment in village housing construction in China is about 471.624 billion – 832.278 billion yuan per year. Due to the level of urbanization in rural areas and farmers to improve the level of living and improve the quality of living and other factors, in a long period of time, China’s rural residential construction will have 200 billion yuan of investment each year and 340 billion yuan – 600 billion yuan of social demand, the rural residential consumer market is very broad. However, in such a huge investment prospect, the pace of development of the industrialization of village housing is still very slow.
The main problems of industrialization of village housing in China
1. The government’s awareness of the industrialization of village housing is not enough.
Local authorities at all levels lack of integrated planning and special policy support for the development of village housing industrialization, and do not incorporate village housing industrialization into the development strategy of villages and towns. The planning, design, development, construction, sales, management services, as well as the research and development of materials and components and production of village residential construction do not form an organic and complete production and management system, and do not form an integrated organization of residential production, supply, sales and service, and do not form a residential industry to meet the requirements of the market economy.
2. Low level of residential planning and design.
Village residential construction lacks unified residential planning, and there is no overall awareness and overall concept of residential construction. In most villages, residential units are basically built by households, and in small towns, there is also a lack of unified residential planning, with loose residential structures and disorganized layouts. The location of housing construction is arbitrary, occupying arable land indiscriminately, with poor infrastructure and inconvenient traffic, which cannot adapt to the needs of agricultural modernization, nor facilitate the organization of production and life and save arable land, but also make it difficult to form a modern village system in rural areas.
3. The residential development and construction mode is backward and the technical content is low.
For a long time, residential construction in villages and towns mainly adopts the model of residents building and living by themselves and scattered construction, and the rate of commercialization of residential buildings is extremely low. Residential construction technology is backward, following the traditional techniques and methods, Qin brick and Han tile, manual masonry, brick and mix structure, few prefabricated components, low modular and assembled components, low labor productivity, low level of application of new technology.
4. Residential parts production and operation system is backward.
At present, the development and production of residential components in China’s villages and towns is at the spontaneous stage, lacking a guiding role in the identification of the system and incentive mechanism, mainly for: First, the standardization system is not sound. The lack of perfect industrialized residential building and residential parts system, technical support, low integration, the production of residential parts lack of specifications, serialization and supporting. Residential components and residential, components and components between the lack of the corresponding connection and cooperation.
Second, the development and production of residential components lack the necessary supervision and incentive mechanism. A sound certification system or access system for residential components has not been established. The residential components lack reliability and quality assurance. Parts market is not standardized, the good parts are not effectively protected, new product development and marketing is generally hampered.
Third, do not pay attention to residential performance recognition work. Development enterprises ignore the application of new technologies and products, and lack of active guidance for new product development, so that the needs of households are not met. The needs of households are not met.
5. Traditional building materials are still the main materials for village housing construction.
China’s village building materials, more than 70% of the wall materials, wall materials, more than 70% of the small solid clay bricks. Although since 1999, the state has promulgated a number of regulations and documents and take a variety of measures to limit, prohibit the production and use of solid clay bricks, but now China’s new wall materials production accounted for the proportion of the total production of wall materials is only about 30%, and a large number of new wall materials backlog, high quality, good performance of new wall materials are not widely used.
At present, China’s vast rural production of solid clay bricks brick enterprises still exist in large numbers, the country has about 110,000 brick production enterprises, covering an area of more than 5 million mu, the annual output of solid clay brick factory for about 500 billion pieces, burning bricks every year to dig 1.2 billion cubic meters of soil, destroying 1.2 million mu of land. Solid clay bricks as the main material for rural housing construction, not only destroyed a large amount of good land, and make the rural housing in terms of quantity, variety, quality and building energy-saving constraints, hindering the development of the village housing industry.
Rural solid clay brick production, the use of high is mainly because: first, the traditional rural housing model is deeply rooted, rural production of clay bricks of small brick kilns can use land resources at will; second, a variety of new wall material prices are higher than solid clay bricks, and the construction process is complex; third, restrict the production, use of solid clay bricks and shut down small kiln brick policies and regulations in the vast number of rural areas has not been strictly established; fourth Fourth, the country’s research on new building materials, design and application of technology research investment is low, the application of new materials technology is not perfect; Fifth, the sustainable development of rural housing strategy of publicity and education is very weak.
6. High energy consumption in residential buildings.
China’s building energy consumption is high mainly in three aspects:
First, the building itself is a product built with high energy-consuming building materials such as cement;
Second, the building insulation itself requires energy consumption; third, the efficiency of energy consumption caused by the heating system does not reach the ideal state.
China’s building energy consumption is higher than that of developed countries, mainly in the poor insulation performance of buildings and the poor condition of the heating system. The heat transfer per unit area of the walls, roofs and doors and windows of buildings in China is about 2-5 times that of developed countries with close climatic conditions; the heating energy consumption per unit building area is 3 times that of developed countries; the comprehensive efficiency of the heating system is only 35%-55%, which is far below the level of about 80% in advanced countries, and the waste of energy in buildings is extremely serious.
The high energy consumption of village houses is mainly manifested in the lack of energy-saving concepts in the planning and layout of residential construction, the poor heat insulation performance of the envelope, the low comprehensive efficiency of the heating system, and the insufficient utilization efficiency of natural energy.
Measures to promote the development of housing industrialization in China’s villages and towns
The fundamental task and goal of promoting the industrialization of village housing is to promote the village housing industry with the theory of circular economy, effectively use resources, reduce waste, protect ecology, and promote the sustainable development of village housing construction; secondly, to take village planning as the guide, improve the engineering quality, functional quality and environmental quality of housing as the core, enhance the living quality of village residents, and stimulate the development of related industries, so as to form Industrial chain, the formation of new economic growth points in rural areas, to promote rural economic and social development; Third, the use of appropriate technical measures and technical policies, quickly promote the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, to ensure the overall technical progress of the construction of village housing, the formation of village housing industry modernization. Village housing industrialization work should be closely around the above-mentioned goals gradually and deeply.
1. Strengthen government management and support.
The government and management departments should strategically understand the importance of developing the village housing industry, strengthen macro-control, and implement supervision and support for the construction of village housing. The state should have corresponding technical and economic policies, and give policy encouragement. Establish an effective management mechanism and system, give full play to the government’s organizational coordination and management functions, and create a favorable external environment for the implementation of the industrialization of village housing.
2. Improve the level of planning and design of village housing.
Design village housing with strategic planning for sustainable development, following the principle of “saving land, beautiful and practical, and functional”. Residential planning has a global concept, highlighting the characteristics of rural areas, adapting to the habits of farmers, taking people as the core, and taking safety, durability, rationality and economy as the standard.
The planning designer must conduct an extensive and in-depth investigation into the current residential reality of villages and towns and the residential mentality of residents, fully understand the local climate, hydrology, topography, geomorphology and resources, pay attention to the local economic, humanistic, historical and customary conditions, combine local building materials and construction technology and other actual conditions, fully consider the requirements of households, and put “people-oriented The modern planning concepts such as “people-oriented” and “democratic participation” are integrated into the village residential planning to form a scientific, reasonable and feasible planning and design plan. Pay attention to the internal function design of residential houses and avoid blindly pursuing the exterior form of residential houses.
3. change the village residential construction mode, the implementation of integrated real estate development.
According to the unified planning, piecemeal development, comprehensive management of the development model, change the current situation of small production of farmers single-family residential construction. Comprehensive real estate development is the integration of urban land and housing development through the whole process in an economic way and in a mass production way.
The advantage of it is that land and housing are pushed to the market as commodities, and land, capital and various resources are optimally allocated through the market mechanism, which has the characteristics of sustainable development. Comprehensive development of real estate can be piloted in small towns and developed rural areas, and gradually extended to the vast number of rural areas when conditions are ripe, so as to promote the construction of village housing to gradually embark on the track of professional, commercialized and socialized development.
4. Build a perfect village housing industry modernization system
Strengthen the village residential industrialization of basic technology, key technology research, and actively improve the village residential construction supporting technology, which is the basis for promoting the modernization of the village residential industry.